Monday, 28 January 2013

PEACEKEEPING IN SOUTHSUDAN

SOUTH SUDAN
 

Background

1.     South Sudan, officially the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East Africa. Its capital and largest city is Juba. South Sudan is bordered by Ethiopia to the east; Kenya to the southeast; Uganda to the south; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest; the Central African Republic to the west; and Sudan to the north. South Sudan includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd formed by the White Nile, locally called the Bahr al Jabal.

2.    What is now South Sudan was part of the British and Egyptian condominium of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and became part of the Republic of the Sudan when independence was achieved in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 09 July 2011. On 14 July 2011, South Sudan became a United Nations member state. It joined the African Union on 28 July 2011. South Sudan is one of the poorest country with possibly the worst health situation in the world.

3.    The Nilotic peoples - the Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk and others - first entered South Sudan sometime before the 10th century. During the period from the 15th century to the 19th century, tribal migrations, largely from the area of Bahr el Ghazal, brought these peoples to their modern locations. The non-Nilotic Azande people, who entered South Sudan in the 16th century, established the region's largest state. The Azande are the third or fourth largest ethnic group in South Sudan (either the Azande or the Bari are third largest). They are found in the Maridi, Yambio, and Tambura districts in the tropical rainforest belt of Western Equatoria and Western Bahr el Ghazal.

4.    It is estimated that South Sudan has a population of 8 million, but given the lack of a census in several decades, this estimate may be severely distorted. The economy is predominantly rural and relies chiefly on subsistence farming. In the middle of the 2000s, the economy began a transition from this rural dominance and urban areas within South Sudan have seen extensive development. The region has been negatively affected by two civil wars since Sudanese independence – the Sudanese government fought the Anyanya rebel army from 1955 to 1972 in the First Sudanese Civil War and then the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) in the Second Sudanese Civil War for almost twenty-one years after the founding of SPLA/M in 1983 – resulting in serious neglect, lack of infrastructural development, and major destruction and displacement. More than 2.5 million people have been killed, and more than 5 million have become externally displaced while others have been internally displaced, becoming refugees as a result of the civil war and war-related impacts.

Situation in 2011

5.    A referendum was held from 09 - 15 January 2011 to determine if South Sudan should declare its independence from Sudan, with 98.83% of the population voting for independence. Those living in the north and expatriates living overseas also voted. This led to formal independence of South Sudan on 09 July 2011. The region of Abyei still remains disputed and a separate referendum will be held in Abyei on whether they want to join North or South Sudan. The South Kordofan conflict broke out in June 2011 between the Army of Sudan and SPLA over the Nuba Mountains.

6.    South Sudan is at war with at least seven armed groups in nine of its ten states, with tens of thousands displaced. The fighters accuse the government of plotting to stay in power indefinitely, not fairly representing and supporting all tribal groups while neglecting development in rural areas.
 
SUMMARY OF MANPOWER : SOUTH SUDAN (UNMISS)

UnitOffrsJCOsORTotalRemarks
INDBAT-I3961750850
INDBAT-II3452764 850
Construction Engineer Company0808259275Being replaced by 112 HMEC in May 2012
Force Sig Coy0814148170
Level-II Hospital14024460

 UN MANDATE (UNMISS)
7.   The UN SC, having determined that the situation faced by South Sudan continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region and acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, by its resolution 1996 (2011) of 08 Jul 11 established the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS).

8.    UNMISS is authorised up to 7,000 military personnel, including military liaison officers and staff officers and up to 900 civilian police personnel, including appropriate formed units, and an appropriate civilian component, including technical human rights investigation expertise.

9.    The mandate of UNMISS is as follows:-

(a) To support the Government and civil society in strengthening popular participation in political processes, including through the wide acceptance of the Constitution and, at the request of the Government, the holding of the first elections, and the participation of women in decision-making forums.

(b) To encourage the Government to ratify into law and implement a set of key international human rights treaties and conventions, including those related to women and children.

(c) To support the Government and civil society in strengthening participatory governance and conflict mitigation at the State level.

(d) To support the establishment of an independent media.

(e) To support the Government in strengthening security within the framework of the rule of law through, inter alia, support for the development of a national security policy.

(f) To support the Government in developing and implementing a national disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programme.

(g) To support the Government in developing a military justice system.

(h) To support the Government in implementing the SPLA action plan to end the recruitment and use of children.

(j) To support the Government in strengthening the capacity of the South Sudan Police Service through technical advice in policy and legislative development, as well as training and mentoring in key areas.

(k) To support the Government in strengthening its capacity to ensure the promotion and protection of human rights throughout the country through the provision of human rights assistance in training and institution- and capacity building.

(l) To support the creation of a conducive environment for the promotion and protection of human rights through monitoring, advocacy and reporting.

(m) To facilitate a protective environment for children affected by armed conflict through implementation of a monitoring and reporting mechanism.

(n) To support the Government in building an independent and competent judicial system through advice at the policy, planning and legislative levels.

(o) To support the Government in strengthening the capacity of the South Sudan Demining Authority to conduct mine action in accordance with international mine action standards.

(p) To support the Government, civil society and all stakeholders through its good offices at the national, State and county level in mitigating conflict.

(q) To support the Government in fulfilling its sovereign responsibility to protect civilians through strategic and technical military and police advice at the national and State levels as appropriate.

(r) To provide security for United Nations and humanitarian personnel necessary to allow them to carry out their mandated conflict mitigation, protection, humanitarian, recovery and development tasks in areas of high risk when Government security services are unable to provide such security.

(s) To provide, within capabilities, physical protection to civilians under imminent threat of physical danger, including through the use of force as a last resort when Government security services are unable to provide such security.

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